Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, PhD students
Potential and Pitfalls: The Current Legal Aspects of Supply Chains in Southeast Asia Managing Islamic and Human Rights Requirements of Supply Chains in the Region
Asia in general, and Southeast Asia in particular with the ASEAN countries leading the development, has become a global manufacturing destination owing to Asia's lower production costs, the availability of labour and land, and its reputation as established manufacturing base.
These opportunities are, however, not without significant risks to the due diligence expected by companies relying on products produced in the region in their supply chain. Human rights issues such as labour regulations and environmental issues regularly spark international outrage and requests of more regulation for companies producing in the region with especially European countries (the German Lieferkettengesetz 2021; the French Corporate Duty of Vigilance Law 2017, and of course, the new EU directive on Corporate Due Diligence and Corporate Accountability) requiring the companies to act.
From a Factory to Your Home: Contracts of Sale and Contracts for Carriage as Fundamental Elements of Supply Chains
No matter how complex the supply chain may be, its primary aim is that the goods produced in a factory reach the end-user. Achieving this aim requires various contracts at different stages of the production and distribution process, of which two types come to the fore: the contract of sale and the contract of carriage. Under a contract of sale, the manufacturer buys raw materials, materials, and semi-finished products, then sells the manufactured goods to a distributor, and finally, under the same type of contract, the consumer purchases the goods from the retailer (often, of course, the chain of contracts is much longer).
Similarly, a contract of carriage is very often concluded. Raw materials, materials, and semi-manufactured goods are transported to a factory, the manufactured goods to a distributor, and then to a retailer or a consumer purchasing the goods online. Contracts of carriage may involve transportation by a variety of modes – sea vessels, aircraft, trucks, rail.
Global Supply Chains and the Challenges of Human Rights in Africa
Many of Africa's 55 states are rich in natural and mineral resources, and the costs of labour are low when compared with wages in Western states. That makes this an attractive region for multinational corporations and their subsidiaries. Adding to the attraction, African states generally import processed goods.
Multinational corporations and their subsidiaries can contribute to state economies, sustainable development, and improvement of local working practices in African states. However, some are linked to serious violations of human rights including forced labour, human trafficking, and child labour as well as hazardous working conditions (Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe).
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